106 terms in P found.
A table containing all the parts to be dispatched in one delivery.
A panic bar enables a door to be opened easily in an emergency because it spans the full width of the door. Such door hardware is particularly important where a large number of escaping persons is to be expected.
This is a type of lock used on doors in escape routes. From the outside the door can only be opened with the appropriate key, but from the inside the door can be opened without a key. A panic lock must comply with building legislation.
Elaboration of one detail on two drawings in parallel.
A parapet is a solid wall (usually of concrete or masonry) that rises above the edge of a roof or bridge deck.
A low perimeter wall above roof level that conceals the edge of the roof.
This is the natural or artificial development of a non-metallic protective layer on a metallic material which prevents or significantly slows down the corrosion of the underlying material. One example is stainless steel: the chromium in the steel forms a layer of chromium oxide that prevents further oxidation.
This component forms part of a patent glazing system and presses the pane of glass against the supporting framework ÔÇô mostly a post-and-rail construction. Patent glazing systems can result in visible frame widths < 50 mm. Aluminium sections are favoured for such components, but plastic or steel sections are also used.
A surface characteristic caused by a natural or artificial ageing process.
See: shape charge.
Roof form with at least three surfaces that slope inwards to a point. Roofs on towers sometimes have this form.
Product data management (PDM) for computer-aided design (CAD) is a system that manages and backs up data and documents so that they can be made available at later phases of the product life cycle. In order to guarantee cooperation across the seele Group irrespective of location and organisation, a PDM system has been implemented for CAD/CAM procedures.
A two-phase, lamellar structural component in steel. (Not to be confused with ÔÇťperliteÔÇŁ, an amorphous volcanic glass.)
This is a suitability test for structural glazing silicone which can be carried out on a flat test surface (pane of glass or sheet metal).
Abbreviation for protective earth neutral conductor. In electrical engineering this is a conductor that performs the functions of the protective earth (PE) and the neutral (N) conductors simultaneously. A conductor with such a dual function is only possible in a TN network.
This is a test setup for investigating the strength of laminated safety glass and glazed safety barriers. Pendulum impact tests are carried out with a soft impact body according to a Euronorm.
See: expenses allowance.
A flat metal product with identical openings (perforations) at a constant spacing. The perforations can be produced by punching, drilling, milling or other methods.
A regular pattern of small holes in hollow bodies or flat products. The size, spacing and shape of the perforations depend on either technical or aesthetic requirements.
The function of this wire rope is to transfer the load from a membrane surface to the respective corner points. The membrane, generally made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), is provided with a pocket along the edge for housing the cable.
This is the process in which a medium infiltrates or penetrates a solid.
The representation of three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional plane to give a three-dimensional impression.
The photocatalytic layer decomposes organic particles lying on the surface of the glass. The decomposition process takes place continuously as long as daylight is available, and the layer is as durable as the glass product itself. The coating consists of titanium dioxide.
This is the name given to the direct conversion of solar energy into electrical energy by means of solar cells. The photovoltaic effect is based on the fact that sunlight generates an electrical voltage in a semiconductor material which can then be drawn off in the form of an electric current.
This process makes use of complementary colours. These mix with the existing colours to produce white. However, one serious disadvantage of this method is that the light absorption increases due to the presence of several colorific oxides and the glass appears darker. Another method of decolourising is chemical decolourisation.
This instrument is an electronic force sensor that can be mounted directly on a permanently installed cable. It is intended to protect against overloads, secure non-preloaded cables, indicate loads and the total of several lifting procedures.
This instrument includes a microprocessor for the accurate determination of the force in a loaded cable or wire, e.g. guy ropes, contact wires, suspension cables. It is placed directly on the wire and the tensile force is shown immediately in the display.
A method for removing unwanted layers of oxide from a metal surface prior to a coating process.
An intermediate product in steelmaking. It is characterised by its high carbon content of 4.0ÔÇô4.7% and tramp elements such as phosphorus, sulphur, silicon and manganese.
A pest control expression that covers all methods (e.g. nets, spikes) of scaring off damaging birds or preventing them from landing or nesting.
In architecture a vertical column that also has a space-enclosing function.
This is a cylindrical element for creating an articulated joint between workpieces. In this type of connection the pin is generally loaded not in tension, but primarily in shear. Pins can be held in position by a screw thread or a split pin.
This type of connection is produced by inserting an oversize pin through all the parts to be connected. Pinned connections can perform three functions: locating, fixing and overload protection. A huge variety of standardised pins are available for these different functions. The most common pin types are: dowel, tapered, grooved and slotted spring.
A component (to DIN 431) for connecting pipes with a screw thread.
A hollow element, usually with a circular cross-section, the length of which is normally much greater than its width.
Different types of stairs have different pitches. The pitch depends on the depth of the tread and the height of the riser. To be able to use the stairs comfortably, the most favourable pitch is achieved with a tread depth of 290 mm and a rise height of 170 mm (= 30┬░).
A sloping roof with a minimum roof pitch of 22 or 30┬░ (depending on the particular building regulations).
Stainless steels in contact with active media containing chloride ions, e.g. seawater, can suffer from this type of corrosion with its distinctive needle-like notches in the surface of the material. This type of corrosion is very dangerous in the case of pressurised pipes and vessels.
This drawn glass process has been used since 1928. It represents a combination of the Fourcault and Colburn processes and the intention is to exploit the advantages of both processes. The Pittsburgh process, which was invented by the Plate Glass Company, resulted in a considerable improvement in productivity.
A (normally) scale representation of a horizontal surface in a building, usually a floor with the walls shown in horizontal section. The plan also provides information about the functions of the individual rooms/areas. The building documentation must include plan drawings of all floors.
A welding process that uses a plasma arc as a heat source. It is used in precision welding and microwelding (0.1ÔÇô0.5 mm sheet metal), but also increasingly for thicker sheets and tubes made from alloyed steels and non-ferrous refractory metals.
This is an interaction in which the essential material properties are modified to such an extent that the function of the system is permanently altered or impaired.
These are man-made, organic materials. They are produced through chemical conversion (a process called synthesis), mainly from petroleum, natural gas and coal, but also other raw materials.
One of the main timber construction systems, closely related to panel construction. The difference between the two is that in platform-frame construction the components are supplied partially prefabricated for subsequent assembly on site to form a stable structure.
Glass fixing for holding panes of glass in position at a discrete point.
Avoiding the use of frames and using point fixings instead results in an unrivalled degree of transparency. In Germany point-fixed glass fa├žades require an Individual Approval because they are not classed as regulated construction products.
A device for measuring the surface tension in glass. After determining the bath side, the measuring point is wetted with an indicator fluid. The device, which works with a laser beam, enables the compressive stress in the surface to be measured exactly.
This is a plastic with a hardness and wearing resistance similar to that of polyoxymethylene, but only suitable for applications < 70┬░C. It is used for bearings in precision mechanics, for guiding and sliding bushes and for underwater installations.
A component that is used for fixing a screw or object to masonry or concrete. The commonest form is the anchor made from polyamide, a thermoplastic.
These are transparent, colourless synthetic materials with high impact resistance and stiffness. In the building sector polycarbonates are used as an alternative to glass.
This is a thermoplastic. It is resistant to water, low temperatures and mechanical abrasion. Suitable for high but brief impact loads.
This is a thermosetting plastic that is very hard and very resistant to wear. Polyimide exhibits a high friction coefficient in dry running situations at temperatures < 70┬░C.
This is a thermoplastic sealant used in insulating glass units as the primary seal between the hermetic edge seal and the glass.
This is a synthetic, glass-like thermoplastic material often colloquially referred to as Perspex or Plexiglass, i.e. acrylic sheet.
This is a high-molecular thermoplastic. Compared with polyamide, it is harder and can accept a higher compressive load, but is more sensitive to impact. It is suitable for dry running or when there is a lack of lubricant, and is used for bearings in precision mechanics.
This is a transparent, amorphous or semi-crystalline thermoplastic. Amorphous polystyrene is widely used, either as a thermoplastically processed material or as a foam (expanded polystyrene).
This is a permanently elastic sealant that is used in insulating glass units as the secondary seal for filling the outer hermetic edge seal.
Inorganic polysulphides are the salts of hydrogen polysulphides. Polysulphides are used to produce sealing compounds for the building industry and insulating glass applications. The hermetic edge seal of an insulating glass unit is often sealed with a polysulphide (secondary seal). The best-known trade name for a polysulphide is Thiokol┬«. Thiokol┬« is not UV-resistant and therefore the edge seal must be shielded from the light.
This is a semi-crystalline polymer of fluorine and carbon. It is not sensitive to soiling, the action of oxygen, ozone or UV radiation and is classified as incombustible (DIN 4102 class A2).
This is a synthetic material primarily used as a hot-melt adhesive in the form of an intermediate sheet (interlayer) for laminated glass. The standard normal thicknesses of PVB sheet are 0.38 mm (single), 0.76 mm (double), 1.14 mm, 1.52 mm and 2.28 mm
This is an amorphous thermoplastic. It is hard and brittle and so plasticisers and stabilisers are added to make it softer, mouldable and suitable for technical applications. PVC is well known for its use in floor coverings, cable insulation and gramophone records.
A roof defect. Roofs always drain to the lowest point. But a mistake in the design can lead to areas from which the water cannot drain away completely; ponds of water collect. Attention should be given to ensuring effective drainage during the design of complex roof forms.
This is a post-anodising hydrothermal treatment that reduces the porosity and the absorption capacity of the oxide layer and hence at the same time enhances the chemical resistance.
A post is a vertical component. As part of a post-and-rail fa├žade it divides a fa├žade into vertical sections. The posts support the glass and carry the wind loads acting on the glazing.
A glass fa├žade in which the panes of glass are fitted between vertical posts and horizontal rails. This system allows the construction of delicate glass fa├žades. Steel, aluminium or timber can be used for the loadbearing members. Also known as stick system fa├žade.
A test for assessing the quality of the mixing of structural glazing silicone.
Industrial manufactured powder, e.g. based on cement, that is mixed with a certain quantity of water. It cures hydraulically, which is why powder adhesives are permanently water-resistant. Synthetic additives can improve the properties.
A coating process in which an electrically conductive material is coated with a paint in powder form. Steel, galvanised steel and aluminium are typical substrates for powder coating. It is used to protect against corrosion and also for appearance purposes (colour to suit customer specification or chosen from the RAL chart).
Powder-actuated fasteners are used to connect components, e.g. cold-form steel sections to steel or reinforced concrete. Different fastener types are available to suit the different applications ÔÇô for both detachable and permanent connections. They are ÔÇťshotÔÇŁ through the part to be connected and into the other part with a special hand-held gun.
In this process the material is given a very thin, porous anodised finish prior to powder coating. This prevents filiform corrosion, a form of corrosion that only occurs in the immediate vicinity of bodies of water, however. See: anodising.
A multi-layer fa├žade panel made from a thin-wall concrete element with a high loadbearing capacity. The prefabrication enables a high surface quality to be achieved.
A window with a slender concrete frame, normally provided with a fixed light but also available with opening lights. Such windows are supplied prefabricated and ready to install.
This is a foam profile impregnated with a synthetic polymer which is fitted into a joint in its precompressed state and then allowed to expand gradually so that it fills the joint completely, creating a seal against air, dust, small amounts of fluids, etc.
A predefined, prepared point at which a component fails in the event of an overload. The position is chosen to cause minimum damage.
Factory-made non-storey-high component consisting of assembled elements, including infill panel(s).
Factory-made non-storey-high component consisting of assembled elements, including infill panel(s).
A high degree of prefabrication can reduce the erection time on site. Prefabrication is a very important aspect of unitised fa├žades and can have a positive influence on the entire sequence of building operations. The maximum size of a prefabricated element is mostly determined by the transport options and lifting equipment available.
The initial cleaning of a fa├žade following erection.
This is a method for bending sheet metal to a specific angle. The size of the angle is set by the force of the press and the use of various punches and dies. Sheet metal should be bent perpendicular to the direction of rolling whenever possible in order to prevent cracking along the irregularities that occur in the direction of rolling.
A glass product that is produced by pressing a plain plunger into a (normally) patterned mould. Compressed air can be used as an alternative to the plunger. Hollow glass blocks represent an example of a pressed glass product.
A forming process. We distinguish between sheet metal forming and solid or massive forming. In the latter, the process begins with a cylindrical blank that is worked either hot (compression moulding, extruding) or cold (cold upsetting, impact extrusion).
Pressure compensation is necessary in the case of the installation and/or transport of insulating glass at high altitudes (> 600 m above the place of manufacture of the insulating glass). This is carried out via valves built into the hermetic edge seal.
The introduction of a prestressing force in a cable structure enables the cables to accommodate compressive forces within the scope of the prestressing force. The prestressing force can be degraded by factors such as temperature, relaxation or displacement/yielding of the supports. The objective of designing a cable loadbearing structure is to ensure that the cables remain stressed regardless of the load case.
Non-destructive testing methods for locating the prestressing tendons in prestressed concrete components. There are various ways of magnetising the prestressing tendon and measuring the magnetic field at the surface of the concrete.
This process involves eliminating the plastic deformation of a cable prior to it being built into the structure. In addition, the loss of stressing force due to relaxation phenomena in the built-in condition is reduced to a minimum. Only prestretched cables are permitted in fa├žade constructions.
In purchasing, a price comparison is the compilation of the quotations of various suppliers for a particular inquiry.
A tabular overview, produced by the purchasing department, which shows the overall prices and any special aspects of the various tenderers bidding for a given tender.
In a double-leaf fa├žade this is the thermally insulating leaf, normally the inner leaf. It is the original, first fa├žade which has a second fa├žade (outer leaf) erected in front of it.
The main loadbearing part of a building or component. The primary structure transfers the loads safely to the foundations. It usually also provides the stabilising functions for the building or component. Glass functions as the primary structure in structural glazing.
A bond enhancer between steel and a coating material that would otherwise not adhere properly to the surface of the steel, if at all. Primers provide excellent protection against corrosion.
A type of glass that can be switched between opaque and transparent at the flick of a switch. It therefore guarantees privacy whenever necessary but provides users with a view through the glass like a normal window at other times.
This is a document requested by the recipient not for reasons of payment, but as a pure formality. It is issued, for example, in order to declare the value of goods supplied and is then used for tax purposes. In the case of exports, this enables goods to be supplied free of charge to the recipient and the custom duties remain unaffected.
A parametric 3D CAD software, also often referred to simply as Pro/E. All objects are modelled three-dimensionally so that drawings can be produced and/or several objects combined to form subassemblies. This software is used within the seele Group for handling projects with complex geometries.
A special form of glass cast in a U-shape. Manufactured according to the continuous rolling method with/without surface pattern, with/without wire inlay. The structurally beneficial form enables large spans to be achieved. Also known as channel glass.
A rolled glass in the form of a channel section (wide web, narrow flanges). It has a patterned surface and can also be supplied with a wire inlay.
This is the stress at which a certain strain in the material can be accommodated. It specifies the stress at which plastic deformation of the material starts to take place. The 0.2% proof stress is normally used as a characteristic value for steel in structural analyses.
A company or commercial organisation that purchases plots of land for the building of turnkey dwellings. These premises are then offered for sale.
A class of sheet glass that owing to its special configuration or special surface treatment can totally or partially reflect and/or absorb heat, UV radiation, sound or radioactive radiation.
An initial sample or model, e.g. of a fa├žade element, from which a batch or series of products is developed.
A prototype of a fa├žade is produced in order to check the design and form and to test the minimum constructional demands placed on the fa├žade. It should include all the essential elements and connections in full detail.
The voluntary assumption of a public-law obligation.
The manufacture of flat products from various materials (sheet metal, cardboard, textiles, etc.) with a press or sheared off with a cutting tool. Shearing is the cutting principle used here.
This is the procurement timetable for the materials necessary for a project. A purchasing schedule is an obligatory part of project management at seele.
This is a PUR recycled granulate (rigid polyurethane foam) with a high compressive strength and a thermal conductivity (´üČ) of 0.07 W/mK. It is used, for example, in panels or window frames with a high thermal insulation value.
Glazing with putty is a simple and also the oldest method of providing a secure linear support for a pane of glass. The putty provides a load-transfer fixing between the glass and the frame, and at the same time waterproofs this joint. UV radiation causes embrittlement of the putty, which leads to a loss of elasticity. This gradual hardening of the support can lead to breakage of the glass.
Roof form square on plan and with four surfaces that slope inwards to a point.