200 terms in S found.
A test body used for testing glazing intended for limited foot traffic.
A non-noble metal used to protect functioning parts against corrosion.
A cast part that is produced at the start of a series of castings and subsequently tested to destruction in order to verify the material properties.
A construction or components on a building designed to prevent a person falling from a higher level to a lower level, e.g. temporary edge protection systems, spandrel panels, balustrades, also panels made of glass.
This foil is usually bonded between two panes of glass, but it is also possible to retrofit such a foil on the outside. The primary purpose of the foil is to prevent fragments of glass from becoming detached in the case of breakage.
In this technique the surface of the glass is not given different levels of matt finish as with acid-etching, but instead abraded to a deeper level. The surface of the glass is worked with grains of sand and corundum under high pressure. The surface texture is categorised according to the particle size. Sandblasting has a coarser effect than acid-etching.
The sandwich construction normally used in the building industry consists of a foam core and two metal facings. The bond (adhesion or adhesive) between the facings and the shear-resistant core gives the sandwich panel a high load-carrying capacity and high stiffness.
This is the hardest of all types of glass and is made from a synthetic sapphire material.
A glass surface treatment involving acid-etching or sandblasting.
A roof form that is primarily used on buildings covering a large area, e.g. factories. A succession of small monopitch or duopitch roofs enables the overall height of the roof to be minimised. Also known as northlight roof.
A scaffold is a temporary, generally reusable auxiliary construction made from (mostly) standardised timber or metal components which is used as a working platform or protective screen.
Complex building envelopes require involved scaffolding for erection. A good scaffolding concept can help to reduce the cost of erection. For example, mobile scaffolds can save valuable setup and dismantling time.
In technical contexts this is the relationship between the portrayed size and the real size of an object. Architectural and engineering drawings normally employ scales between 1:1 (details) and 1:500 (GA drawings, external works).
An oxidation process that takes place above approx. 500 ┬░C, e.g. during hot working and heat treatments. Scale formation is a form of corrosion of a metal caused by a direct reaction with oxygen.
Waste material with a high metal content which is used not only as a coolant, but also as a so-called secondary raw material in the production of steel.
A narrow channel into which a screw can be inserted for fixing a fa├žade frame member.
This is a continuous helical structure on the inside or outside of a cylinder. It converts a rotational movement or force into a linear one, or vice versa.
Such a fitting merely prevents a fastener from becoming completely undone. Some loosening may be possible and that may involve a loss of the preload required for the design. Methods include counternuts, special nuts and washers, wires, plates, etc.
A measure to prevent a screw or bolted connection from becoming loose or detached as a result of external influences, e.g. vibration, corrosion, yielding. This is usually achieved by including additional components (usually also preloaded like the connectors themselves), attaching special fittings or by applying an adhesive.
A sealant triangular in cross-section that fixes the glass without the use of a glazing bead.
This type of pipe is manufactured from solid pre-hollowed or pre-drilled blooms or billets in the hot state. The first step is the production of a short, thick-wall tube blank. In the following operation this is drawn into the finished pipe.
This is a measure of a sectionÔÇÖs resistance to bending. It is needed to calculate the deformation of a component.
A secondary structure does not carry any loads from the primary structure. The failure of the secondary structure results in partial collapse of the building or component only. Typical secondary structures are: floors and walls not contributing to the stability of the building, rooftop structures and fa├žade elements. Glazed safety barriers are also secondary structures.
Related to the extreme fibres of the cross-section through a linear member, this is the second moment of area divided by the distance between extreme fibre and axis of bending. The bending stress at the extreme fibres is calculated with this value (bending moment divided by section modulus).
A facility for producing sections and straight bars. Each stand in a rolling mill has two or three rolls. Grooves are cut in the body of each roll to match the section(s) to be rolled.
Glass represents the very soul of seele. The name seele stands for ingenuity, innovation, seminal perfection and the very highest quality where glass is concerned. seele co-operates worldwide with renowned architects and clients and is always striving to turn the impossible into reality. This is why seele has become established as a reliable partner.
Sefix is a trade name of seele. It is a fixing for attaching a pane of glass to its supporting framework. It is in the form of a retaining plate that is fits into a recess in the edge seal of an insulating glass unit. It is secured by an upturned U-section piece. Once it has been fitted and the joint between the panes sealed with silicone, the Sefix retainer is no longer visible.
Segregation occurs in unkilled steels. This flaw impairs the welding suitability. Segregation zones are primarily found in the flange-web transitions of I-sections, or in the middle of strip steel. However, killed steels are used mostly these days and so segregation is rare.
This is a trade name for toughened safety glass. Sekurit┬« was the first glass of this type worldwide.
Also known as dealloying or selective leaching, this is a type of corrosion in which a component of an alloy is preferentially leached from the material. Selective corrosion is the generic term for corrosion forms such as intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion.
Selectivity S is the ratio of the light transmission is TL (in %) to the total energy transmittance g (in %): S = TL/g.
In the glass industry this designates the ratio of the light transmittance Tv to the total energy transmittance g.
This new type of glass, which requires less cleaning, is made possible by a specific modification of the surface. Hydrophobic, hydrophilic or photocatalytic properties or the lotus effect can be exploited.
Self-drilling screws are used for connecting materials with different degrees of hardness. They can be used for connecting plastic sheets to a metal framework, for example. Self-drilling screws have an additional drill point at the end that drills the pilot hole. They can bore through sheet metal up to 10 mm thick.
This type of nut has a ring of plastic in a groove on one side which fits tightly around the thread upon tightening and therefore prevents the connection becoming loose or detached, e.g. due to vibration. Such nuts can be used once only and cannot be used at high temperatures.
This term covers prefabricated raw material forms such as sheet metal, bars or tubes. These are further processed to form the final products. Semi-finished products are often produced from metals or plastics according to general standards.
This is a central computer on which one or more computer programs are running.
Insulating glass reaches the end of its useful life when the amount of water vapour that has infiltrated the hermetic edge seal is such that the absorption capacity of the desiccant is exhausted and therefore condensation between the panes is a permanent feature.
Part of a structural analysis. It designates the maximum deformation at which the function of a component is still guaranteed. One example is the maximum permissible deformation of the supporting construction for insulating glass. In the case of excessive deformation, the insulating glass can become pervious and no longer fulfil its function.
Setting blocks carry the weight of the pane of glass. They must distribute the weight of the glass over the frame so that it can support the pane of glass and additional stresses are ruled out.
Setting blocks are used with glazing units in order to fix the position of the unit within the frame in such a way that the load is transferred via the fixings to the frame construction, or via the hinges of opening lights.
SentryGlas┬« (SG) from DuPontÔäó is a sheet material that exhibits a much higher strength than conventional PVB interlayers, even at temperatures exceeding 70┬░C. It has been used in Europe since 2002.
A variable that is needed for calculating cooling loads according to VDI Technical Rule 2078. The following applies: b = g/0.8. Also known as b-factor.
The Fc value describes the degree of shading provided by a sunshade. It is specified in the form of a value between 0 and 1. The lower the value, the greater the sunshade reduces the amount of incoming solar radiation.
This is the trade name for a fa├žade shading system that consists of glass louvres that track the position of the sun. The sunshading effect is a result of the reflection and absorption properties of the louvre material.
A coloured piece of sheet aluminium or a panel behind the insulating glass of a glass fa├žade. It conceals concrete floor slabs or suspended ceilings behind the fa├žade. The visual effect of depth behind the insulating glass remains when viewed from outside.
A surcharge added to the price when panes of glass are not square/rectangular, but instead are of a non-standard shape. As rule, a surcharge, a percentage of the total price of the pane, must be paid to the supplier of the glass. The surcharge is normally between 10 and 250 %. Also known as pattern charge.
A transparent film that can be applied to float glass to give it properties similar to laminated safety glass. If the glass is damaged, the fragments of glass are held in place by this viscoplastic material.
An internal force in a building component. There is a relationship between load, shear force and bending moment. Shear forces are internal forces that manifest themselves in the form of shear stresses. Shear forces need to be taken into account in the design of sections.
This is a bodyÔÇÖs resistance to tangential shearing forces. The shear strength designates the maximum shear stress with which a body can be loaded without being sheared off or through.
In a shear-resistant edge seal the inner and outer panes of a glazing unit are bonded together via a structural member. This improves the stability of the entire glazing unit. See: hermetic edge seal.
A flat product made by rolling which is used as a roof covering, for pipes and gutters and for other roofing and plumbing purposes.
This is glass that has been produced as a flat pane for use directly as a window etc. but also as the raw material for mirrors, vehicle glass, etc. Sheet glass is used for many applications in the building industry.
A flat product in thicknesses from 0.35 to 3.00 mm: cold-rolled flat products made from soft steels for cold-forming, cold-rolled strip and sheet, general engineering steels, soft unalloyed steels for enamelling, also higher-strength grades plus flat products with metallic or organic coatings in the above thicknesses.
A flat development of the finished sheet metal part is required in order to produce a bent or folded sheet metal component from one piece.
Types of sheet metal forming include bending, deep-drawing, drawing and stamping.
A planar loadbearing structure in single or double curvature which can accommodate in-plane and out-of-plane loads. A shell structure minimises the amount of materials needed for a loadbearing construction.
A zinc diffusion method for forming zinc-iron layers on workpieces containing iron, which helps to prevent corrosion.
This method of welding, also known as MIG or MAG welding, is a semi-automatic type of arc welding in which the consumable bare wire electrode is fed continuously by a variable-speed motor. The gas mixture is fed to the welding point from a nozzle simultaneously with the wire feed.
Intermediate pad of metal or plastic. Shims are used during erection and assembly to compensate for the manufacturing tolerances of components.
This damage monitoring system is used by the seele group primarily during the transport of sensitive products. The indicators are in the form of labels attached to the packaging which react to vibrations. In the event of damage during transport, e.g. to panes of glass, it is possible to use the label to find out who caused the damage in the transport chain.
The Shore hardness, named after Albert Shore, is a material parameter for elastomers.
This is a surface treatment method in which small metallic, glass or ceramic particles are blasted against the surface to be treated by means of a centrifugal wheel, compressed air or spray equipment.
A casting cools and in doing so the material shrinks, i.e. contracts. The pattern must therefore be larger than the finished workpiece by an amount equivalent to the shrinkage allowance. So-called shrink or contraction rules are therefore used.
A door that is fixed via hinges to a frame on one side and which rotates about the axis of the hinges.
German abbreviation for Sicherheits- und Gesundheitsschutzplan (health and safety plan). It serves to implement EU Directive 92/57/EEC regarding minimum health and safety requirements on construction sites.
German abbreviation for Sicherheits- und Gesundheitsschutzkoordinator (health and safety coordinator). This person is appointed by the client for those building sites where the total number of person days exceeds 500 (in other words, 20+ personnel for 30 days). The health and safety coordinator must specify, coordinate and ensure compliance with measures necessary for industrial safety and healthy working conditions. See: SiGe-Plan.
Glass with silicone dioxide as the main constituent. Silicate glass accounts for by far the largest share of glass production and encompasses lead glass, borosilicate glass and soda-lime-silica glass.
This element is a metalloid (semi-metal) which exhibits properties of both metals and non-metals.
Silicone is the designation for a synthetic polymer in which silicon atoms are bonded via oxygen atoms.
This is a collective term for the modifications of the oxides of silicon with the empirical formula SiO2. Silicon dioxide is a fundamental constituent in the production of glass.
A silicone joint is an elastic connection between building components achieved with the use of silicone-based sealants. These belong to the group of elastomers. They are elastic and also poor conductors of electricity. They may not, however, be regarded as a vapour barrier.
UV-resistant silicone is used to seal an insulating glass fa├žade in which the hermetic edge seals are exposed to sunlight.
The output wave form of an electric alternating current. An optimum sine wave is characterised by a consistent, defined wave form above and below zero.
An old designation for glass 2 mm thick.
Each bay of the fa├žade is ventilated separately and any water drained to the outside from each individual element.
This is a special type of glass consisting of just one chemical constituent.
Sintered materials are produced from metal powders that are formed into workpiece blanks under high pressure which then undergo a heat treatment, i.e. sintering, in order to achieve their final strength.
A record of the activities carried out on a building site which forms the basis for invoicing dayworks.
These are the buildings, equipment and plant required for the establishment and operation of a building site. Site facilities include cranes, stores, sanitary installations, water and power supplies, and security measures.
A reworking process used on hot-rolled deep-drawn or special deep-drawn sheet metal to achieve a bright surface by way of cold rerolling.
German abbreviation for shear/bearing connection (Scher-Lochleibungsverbindung). The fastener can be loaded in tension and shear. An additional retainer should be allowed for because of the lack of a preload.
Solid crude steel with a rectangular cross-section. The width must be equal to at least twice the thickness. This is a semi-finished product from which sheet steel and hot-rolled strip is made. We distinguish between slab ingots and roughed slabs.
The steel reinforcement in reinforced concrete often prevents the accurate positioning of holes drilled at a later date. To overcome this problem, a tube or similar item is cast in between the reinforcing bars. This guarantees that the holes required are available in the right positions at a later date.
A term important in structural engineering. A measure of the stability of components such as concrete columns or steel stanchions. See: buckling.
This is an element that is based on the sliding movement (guiding) of a component on or in a support. Such bearings generally rely on lubrication to prevent sliding friction. The materials must be matched with one another depending on the load and speed.
Slip band is a term used in materials science. It is also called persistent slip band (PSB). Slip bands are structures in metals in which the deformation is concentrated due to an external load.
German abbreviation for close-tolerance shear/bearing connection (Scher-Lochleibungs-Passverbindung). The use of a close-tolerance fastener enables higher forces to be transmitted than would be the case with otherwise equivalent types of connection. Other constructional requirements, e.g. the play in the hole, must be complied with. An additional retainer should be provided.
German abbreviation for shear/bearing connection with preload (planm├Ą├čig vorgespannte Scher-Lochleibungsverbindung). The fastener can be loaded in tension and shear. The application of a preload makes additional retainers superfluous.
German abbreviation for close-tolerance shear/bearing connection with preload (planm├Ą├čig vorgespannte Scher-Lochleibungs-Passverbindung). The load-carrying capacity is higher than that of an equivalent connection without a close-tolerance fastener. The application of a preload makes additional retainers superfluous.
Abbreviation for Standard Motor Interface. This is a uniform interface in building automation for controlling electronic drives. It is used, for example, in louvre blinds, roller shutters, etc.
This is an installation intended to remove smoke from the roof and fa├žade areas of public buildings so that in the event of a fire toxic fumes and gases do not collect and persons can find escape routes. These are safety installations and therefore the relevant statutory instruments must be taken into account for their design and construction.
This is a self-closing door that is intended to prevent the spread of smoke through a building in the event of a fire. The terminology and requirements for smoke doors are laid down in DIN 18095-1. Also known as smoke-control or smoke-stop door.
Smoke penetration ratings are designated with the letters G for doors and R for fixed glazing followed by the time (in minutes) the construction can prevent the penetration of smoke.
This is a glass infill panel that resists the penetration of smoke and flames for a certain length of time. When exposed to heat, this type of glass does not break immediately, but keeps an escape route open for a specified period. The fire resistance of R-glazing varies from 30 to 60 minutes (R 30 to R 60).
A traditional tool used in interior works for producing a straight line.
In Germany this currently consists of health insurance (7.9 % employee + 7.0 % employer = 14.9 %), pension contribution (19.9 %), unemployment insurance (2.8 %) and nursing care insurance (1.95 % + 0.25 % for employees aged 23 and over with no dependent children). Employer and employee each pay half of the social security contributions.
A socket is a component that forms a continuous connection between two pipes or cables. A fixing component with an internal thread which is more than twice as long as the internal diameter is known as a threaded socket.
One of seven modifications of the chemical compound sodium carbonate. Anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) is used in the production of soda-lime-silica glass and for lowering the melting point of silicon dioxide (SiO2).
This is the most common type of glass and is used for producing receptacles and sheet glass.
This compound (chemical formula Na2CO3), also known as soda, is a salt of carbonic acid. When used as a foodstuffs additive, it is designated E 500. Sodium carbonate is a fundamental constituent in the production of glass.
This compound (Na2SO4) is an additive used in the production of glass ÔÇô as a fining agent for reducing the formation of gas bubbles. It occurs as a by-product in the chemicals industry during reactions in which sulphuric acid is neutralised with caustic soda.
This is a test method for assessing the strength of safety glass when subjected to the impact of a body with a relatively large mass (e.g. pendulum-type impact with twin tyres to EN 12600) but low velocity. This test is intended to simulate the impact of a person on a pane of glass.
This is the commonest soft magnetic material and consists of unalloyed iron. Electrical machines (electric motors, generators, transformers, etc.) contain soft iron plates for concentrating or strengthening magnetic fields.
Soft coating is a method of coating that is not carried out directly during the manufacture of float glass, but rather in an additional process, normally by way of vapour deposition or magnetron sputtering. Soft-coated surfaces are sensitive to aggressive environmental conditions and mechanical actions.
This is a thermally toughened low-iron glass intended for use in photovoltaic modules.
In this type of glass a suitable coating prevents infrared radiation (heat) and ultraviolet radiation (which causes fading) passing through the glass to the interior. The corresponding coating is applied to surface No. 2 (counted from the outside).
A special glass material used for soldering glasses together.
One of the major states of matter. Materials are also regarded as solid when they exhibit structural rigidity and resistance to change in shape or volume at a temperature of 20┬░C.
A form of construction for a loadbearing structure in which the space-enclosing elements such as walls and suspended floors are made of masonry or concrete.
With a solvent dye the colorant forms clear, dissolved silicates in the glass melt. This results in so-called body-tinted glass. The colour effect is due to the absorption of specific wavelengths of light.
Sound ensues when a body oscillates. Sound propagates equally in all directions around the source of the sound unless this is prevented by some obstacle. Sound cannot propagate in a vacuum. On the other hand, it propagates as soon as impacts cause the particles of a body to begin oscillating.
This is specified in numerous DIN standards. In principle the aim is to prevent noise (from services, etc.), to shield against noise from outside (acoustic windows) and to avoid sound transmissions within a building. The frequencies relevant for buildings range from approx. 100 Hz to approx. 4000 Hz.
This is a ratio, i.e. a dimensionless physical variable. The unit of measurement, decibel (dB), is named after Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone.
The sound reduction index R is based on a logarithmic scale and specifies the capacity of a building component to restrict the passage of sound. The range relevant to buildings is 100ÔÇô3150 Hz. Rw is the 10-fold logarithmic ratio of the sound power incident on the building component to the sound power emitted from the component. Halving the sound power corresponds to a 10 dB improvement in the sound insulation.
A hollow metal section of stainless steel or aluminium that keeps the panes of an insulating glass unit a certain distance apart and also provides a container for the desiccant.
A surface phenomenon that ensues when a zinc coating solidifies.
These tolerances can be realised by employing additional precautions during manufacture and must be agreed in each individual case. The additional work required for these precautions is specified for the respective tolerances and usually associated with extra costs.
A specification is a formal description of a product, system or service. The aim of a specification is to define and quantify features with which the product or service of the supplier can be checked upon being provided to and paid for by the client.
A special type of bearing used in bridges. Spherical bearings are designed according to the principle of a ball-and-socket joint. They enable significant rotation in a compact form with minimum resistance, especially with varying action effects. This type of bearing can also be used for heavily loaded components in fa├žades.
A colourless, readily combustible liquid with a boiling point of 78 ┬░C. Used as a solvent, as a cleaning agent, for heating purposes and as a fuel additive.
Long glass fins can be fabricated in spliced form. This means that the individual butt joints between the pieces of glass are offset (or staggered) in alternate layers to cover the butt joints of the adjacent layer. Glass fins longer than the maximum length of glass available can therefore be fabricated.
A special intermediate post design for unitised post-and-rail fa├žades. This member, divided vertically, is placed between the individual elements, each half of which is allocated to one element.
An electric resistance welding process for the discrete jointing of workpieces, e.g. steel components, wires in reinforcing meshes, etc.
Spread of fire is the name given to the propagation of fire by flames, sparks or the effects of heat (radiant heat) from one fa├žade opening to another, or from one component to another.
Spread of fire is the name given to the propagation of fire by flames, sparks or the effects of heat (radiant heat) from one fa├žade opening to another, or from one component to another. Fire can spread in either the vertical or horizontal direction.
This is a small flat nail used for fixing a pane of glass in a wooden frame.
An engineering component that yields under load but returns to its original form when the load is removed, i.e. it behaves elastically.
Steel with a high strength that is used for producing all kinds of springs for an extremely wide variety of technical applications.
This steel ring prevents a nut from loosening in the event of vibration.
In the high-power impulse magnetron sputtering process, a layer of a noble metal is applied to the surface of the float glass after the glass production process.
Sputtering is a coating technique and belongs to the group of physical vapour deposition (PVD) methods. It involves the erosion of material from a ÔÇťtargetÔÇŁ solid substance by way of energetic ion bombardment (primarily noble gas ions) in order to coat a substrate with the eroded material. Also known as magnetron sputtering.
The abbreviation for structural sealant glazing ÔÇô a special application for adhesives. SSG designs use the adhesive to carry the loads. In Germany in particular, comprehensive verification of the durability of the adhesive joint must be provided. SSG fa├žades in which the panes of glass are held in place by adhesive only are not permissible in Germany.
The stack effect works on the principles of aerostatics. Hot air has a lower density than cold air, which results in an upward thermal current for the hot air. In a double-leaf fa├žade the captive radiation energy drives the hot air up the fa├žade ÔÇô the stack effect.
This is the obscuring (chemical reaction) of the surface of single glazing due to exposure to the weather or the long-term effects of moisture. This effect can occur within the cavity of an insulating glass unit if the hermetic edge seal becomes impervious.
A colloquial name given to a group of corrosion- and acid-resistant steels.
A metal fabric with a regular mesh, or rather apertures. The individual metal wires can be connected with clips or crimped sleeves.
Fa├žades are often divided into regular grids so that many identical elements can be used for a construction. This is very advantageous for fabrication, transport and erection. Perimeter zones often have to deviate from this standard grid because of the transition to adjacent components.
The standard thicknesses of float glass made from soda-lime-silica glass are: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 19 mm. Borosilicate glass is also available in 7 mm, but not 19 mm. Profiled glass is available in 6 and 7 mm only.
These are all those tolerances that can be guaranteed during normal production sequences.
The advantage of standardisation is the fact that it is easier to work with standardised components because these are interchangeable. To do this, it is necessary for the fundamental properties of standardised parts to be used by central bodies, manufacturers and suppliers.
An electricity generation system that in the case of a mains failure ensures a supply of electricity for equipment relevant to safety functions.
Check symbol attached to a detail drawing by the client or architect. It means that the drawing has been approved.
Check symbol attached to a detail drawing by the client or architect. It means that the drawing has been approved apart from a number of obligatory corrections; the client must be given a copy of the corrections and the designated check symbols must be followed.
Metal alloys with iron as their principal component and a carbon content of 0.02ÔÇô2.06% are known as steels. The following applies in normal cases: the strength of the steel, but also its brittleness, increases with the carbon content. As this is the metallic material used most frequently, it is in most cases preferred for the primary structure of delicate fa├žade constructions.
A linear steel product with a cross-section in the form of a right-angled letter L (at least the standardised products).
Customary term for all products of all steel grades in the form of straight solid bars with a cross-section that remains constant over the entire length. We normally distinguish between rolled, forged and cold-drawn products.
Steel beams form the structural framework for many fa├žades. Steel beams are available with various cross-sections, e.g. I-section, T-section, square or rectangular hollow sections. They are produced by means of a continuous casting process and cut to the desired length.
The branch of construction in which steel is used as the primary loadbearing material. The possibilities for constructing with steel first appeared in the second half of the 19th century when sufficient quantities of steel first became available. Also known as structural steelwork.
Ferrosilicon or aluminium is added to the steel melt during the deoxidation of steel. These metals bond the oxygen that is released as the steel solidifies so that no gas bubbles are formed in the steel ingot.
A rolled industrial product made of steel with a rectangular cross-section which has a width much larger than its thickness. According to DIN EN 988, the thickness must remain constant over the entire length of the product.
We distinguish between two types of pipe production: seamless pipes and welded pipes.
This type of steel in the form of bars or meshes is cast into concrete to form reinforced concrete.
Shaped steel (rolled, drawn, pressed) with a cross-section that remains constant over its entire length (bar, I-section, etc.).
The designation for a steel product with a constant cross-section in the form of an I, H, T or U (channel).
This is a lever mechanism that enables the strength of an H-type tensile test specimen to be assessed inexpensively for structural glazing adhesive joints. The H-type specimens are tested to failure. The tensile strength at failure should be at least 0.70 MPa.
A stepped detail at the edge of an insulating glass unit. One pane projects beyond the other and the edge seal.
In stepped insulating glass the edges of the panes are not flush; instead, one pane overlaps the other. Used, for example, in glazing to roofs. See: stepped edge.
The gas bubbles through the melt, thoroughly mixes this and in doing so drags the impurities to the surface. When argon is used as the gas, this process can replace vacuum treatment. Also known as circulation or rinsing gas.
A water glass product used for waterproofing and silicifying porous concrete and masonry. It is a tried-and-tested means of waterproofing stone, porous, permeable concrete surfaces, plasters and renders. Stonosal infiltrates into the absorbent zones of concrete and mortar and forms silicone resins and insoluble calcium silicates out of unused cement particles.
Aluminium products must be stored remote from the anodisation plant prior to and after anodising. They must be protected against condensation and soiling. Stocked anodised parts must be marked with the coating thickness class immediately after treatment.
Stove enamelling is used to coat aluminium components, e.g. aluminium window frames, with a tough coating, which is dried at high temperatures. The coating also protects the aluminium against corrosion.
This is a measuring device that records the deformation of an object. Even minimal movements change the electrical resistance of the gauge and so they are used to indicate the strain in an object. A special adhesive, which exhibits minimal deformation under load, is used to bond such gauges to building components.
A door hinge that is mounted on the door leaf and door frame so that it remains visible.
This is a materialÔÇÖs resistance to plastic deformation beyond a certain point, or rather its resistance to the propagation of cracks or the abrading of its surface.
Glass breaks when the stresses exceed a certain limiting value. The type of load causing the stresses is critical.
This is a process that enables the distribution of mechanical stresses in a glass component to be influenced in a controlled way. To do this, the component must be heated to just above the lower annealing temperature and then held at this temperature until the whole component has reached this temperature.
Continuous casting of steel in sizes close to the final dimensions. In this type of plant, thin strip (pre-strip 15ÔÇô50 mm, strip < 15 mm, thin strip < 5 mm) is produced directly from the melt. The process operates with one or two rolls.
This process is used to remove old coats of paint or varnish from, for example, wood or stone. The application of a liquid or paste-like stripper softens the coating which can then be washed or scraped off.
The design of the loadbearing structure of a building or other constructed artefact. The primary requirement of structural engineering according to construction legislation is to ensure the stability of a building or structure.
A method of glazing developed in the USA in which the glass is attached to the frame with adhesive, without any external fixing or retaining elements around the edges of the glass.
A chemicals-based, one- or two-part adhesive suitable for a diverse range of applications, e.g. metals, mirrors, sealing the rebates of wooden windows.
Long-term observation of buildings and structures. Deformations, support reactions, strains, etc. can be monitored and recorded over a long period of time. The findings can be incorporated directly in new projects. Early detection of damage is also possible.
The branch of construction in which steel is used as the primary loadbearing material. The structures are constructed from rolled sections, plates and tubes made from engineering steels, and also, a recent development, cast steel parts, all of which are connected together by rivets, welds or bolts to form a loadbearing structure.
In this process an electric arc is generated between the end of the stud and the workpiece. Both parts are therefore melted locally and subsequently forced together under pressure.
A subcontractor is employed by the main contractor to carry out part or all of the work the latter has been contracted to do.
In this welding technique one or more wire electrodes are melted while ÔÇťsubmergedÔÇŁ in a layer of flux. The arc that forms between the wire electrode and the workpiece melts part of the flux that collects above the joint to be welded. This process is used for thick plates and long, mostly straight, seams.
A method of welding in which the arc burns under a protective cover of granulated fused flux.
The presentation of the project drawings to the client and architect, who then inspect the drawings and make comments/corrections as necessary. Afterwards, each drawing is awarded a status that determines the next step.
This is a technical device made from a partially elastic material which can be clamped to a smooth, flat surface by means of a vacuum. In fa├žade construction, suction cups are clamped to panes of glass with a vacuum so that they are easier to transport.
This is a so-called heavy gas which when used in insulating glass can improve the sound insulation.
Fa├žades are usually exposed to direct or indirect sunshine. Therefore, sunshading systems are installed in order to provide shade. Examples of sunshading systems include: awnings, louvres, roller blinds and screens.
The name given to a large glazed room on the side of a building. Individually designed to comply with aesthetic and technical requirements, this is high-quality glass architecture that fits in neatly with its surroundings and sets standards while providing a high level of comfort for users.
A support is the bearing surface to which the loads carried by horizontal components (joists, beams, suspended floors, etc.) are transferred. The forces acting at this point are known as reactions.
In structural analysis these specify which forces are transferred from the structure to the subsoil. Pinned, sliding, spring or fixed supports are possible. The detailing of the junction at the support depends on the support conditions and corresponding movement must be possible in the unrestrained direction(s).
This must be sufficiently stable and must prevent any twisting. It can also ensure air circulation.
This is, for example, a scratch, notch, chip or grinding mark that can lead to a considerable drop in the bending strength of a non-toughened glass.
The absolute parallelity between two plane surfaces. Float glass panes exhibit this property. In earlier times, a pane of glass with absolutely parallel surfaces could only be achieved through extensive grinding.
This is the temperature that prevails at the surface of a building component. Cold walls and windows are the result of inferior thermal insulation. That reduces the thermal comfort and can lead to the formation of condensation.
Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and physical vapour deposition (PVD) can be used to apply an ultra-fine metal coating to a glass surface, e.g. to reduce the permeability of the glass with respect to infrared light without impairing the transparency significantly.
Subsequent working of the surface of sheet glass by way of grinding, acid-etching, sandblasting, ice-patterning and enamelling.
In the planning of buildings and structures, surveying records the actual and legal position and constituents of a plot of land.
A lightweight ceiling construction mounted below the structural floor. Suspended ceilings are used, for example, in the refurbishment of existing buildings and in very high rooms or to improve sound insulation (by including an additional layer of mineral insulation). They provide good options for the concealed routing of building services.
A (mostly) horizontal component separating adjacent storeys in a building. It forms a trafficable surface for the storey above.
A side-hung door that can open in both directions.
Laminated safety glass with an interlayer of liquid crystals. Applying an electric voltage aligns the crystals and switches the glass to the transparent state. When the voltage is switched off, the glass has a milky white appearance which guarantees privacy but still allows light to pass through.
A system fa├žade enables a multitude of fa├žade designs to be constructed on the basis of one system made from identical components. The fabrication and erection of this type of fa├žade is more cost-effective than custom and special solutions.
German abbreviation for the cavity between two panes of glass (Scheibenzwischenraum). In normal cases this cavity is 12 or 16 mm wide. The design of the cavity together with the low E coating essentially determines the U-value of the glazing.